1.1 – Definition of Mobility Management
Mobility is a fundamental element for people’s lives and responds to their needs for accessibility, relationship and development: it therefore represents the backbone of a territory, fostering entrepreneurship and building strong local capacities. Any action taken in the field of mobility produces effects on the whole territorial system and therefore needs to refer to a new discipline that puts the integrated approach at the base of its theoretical and operational definitions.
Mobility is therefore a complex system that includes the movement of goods and people on the territory by any means of transport. This system is formed, inter alia, by people, goods, services, road infrastructures, railways, airports, car parks and inter-modal hubs, public and private transport, cycling paths and pedestrian areas. The combination of these elements influences the functioning of urban areas and the living conditions of its inhabitants and has a strong impact on the quality of the environment.
The Mobility Management (MM) concept, generated in the 1990s and emerged more prominently in the last decade, represents the key asset to analyse and manage the transport demand. Mobility Management entails a totally new approach that begins with a full understanding of customer needs and evolves towards potential solutions able to match the needs of community groups with a range of available or possible solutions.
With this term, according to the meaning given by the European standard, we indicate a different approach to the problems of urban mobility oriented to demand management that defines and implements strategies, policies and new procedures aimed to ensure the efficient mobility of people and goods, paying particular attention to social, environmental and energy-saving factors.
Mobility Management promotes and manages Sustainable Transport to reduce the demand for car use by changing travellers’ attitudes and behaviours. Main objectives of Mobility Management can be summarised as follows:
- developing and managing an effective mobility system, able to reduce traffic bottlenecks and ensure safety by incentivising the use of public transport;
- developing and managing an efficient mobility system, made of a flexible and integrated mobility offer, enabling users to reach their destination in a direct and fast way;
- developing and managing a sustainable mobility system, in terms of cost-effectiveness, green solutions and social aims (services of general interests).
To achieve these objectives Mobility Management can use a wide range of techniques based on organisation, coordination, communication and information. It helps to develop ‘soft’ measures in the transport sector (information and communication, organising services and coordinating activities), complementary to the ‘hard’ approach of building new infrastructures or implementing restrictive measures (see Table 1.1).
|Mobility Management IS||Mobility Management IS NOT|
|Organisation||Big Infrastructure (building)|
|Quality||Traffic Management System|
|Information||Legal Framework conditions|
|Awareness||Fiscal Framework conditions|
1.2 – Comparison of National contexts in the S.T.R.E.E.T. countries
The European legislation on sustainable mobility was promulgated in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity. It provides for the Member States to regulate urban transport, while the provisions at European Commission (EC) level are entrusted with the task of prescribing the improvement of the quality of fuels and emission standards for motor vehicles as well as the differentiation of energy sources for transport and the dissemination of good practices.
For example, the EC rules favoured the progressive reduction of Sulphur Oxide (SOx) emissions from combustion engines, imposing a reduction of this element in fuels distributed within the EC.
Many EC Directives have placed specific restrictions on the type approval of vehicles based on the emissions produced. The Council Directive 70/220/EEC was the first provision to introduce limits for Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. In subsequent additions to this standard, limits were introduced for Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and further restrictions on emission limits were set. The Directive 91/441/EC then marked the beginning of a series of rules, known as the Euro 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Directives, which gradually restricted the permissible limits of emissions.
As far as mobility models are concerned, the European Union (EU) institutions have taken steps to promote the adoption of efficient and environmentally friendly solutions through the publication of steering reports. In particular, on 25 September 2007 the European Commission adopted the “Towards a new culture for urban mobility” Green Paper that set a new European Agenda for urban mobility, while respecting the responsibilities of local, regional and national authorities in this field.
The Commission intended to facilitate the search for solutions by sharing best practice. The Green Paper addressed, for example, how the quality of collective transport can be improved, how the use of clean and energy efficient technologies can be increased, how walking and cycling modes can be promoted and how the rights of passengers on public transport can be protected.
In Europe, the different Countries have introduced the concept of Mobility Management in different periods and in different ways. Fig. 1.1 presents a comparison between the four representative countries of the S.T.R.E.E.T. project partners on three key aspects:
- when the concept of mobility management was introduced
- which the competent subjects are in the respective territorial scales regarding the policies related to the Mobility Management
- what the main legislative key references are regarding the figure of the mobility manager
The situation between the various Countries considered is very different. In some Countries, the Mobility Management has long been part of the National legislation (as in Italy and the United Kingdom), which also provides a direct reference to the figure of the Mobility Manager. In other Countries (such as Austria and Slovenia), however, Mobility Management is considered in a more general sense, implicitly included in references to transport, sustainable development and planning as shown in Fig. 1.2.
The theme of Mobility Management in Italy was initially addressed in the form of urban transport planning. In particular, the Legislative Decree No. 285 of 30 April 1992 (Traffic Laws, Codice della Strada, website in Italian) introduced for the Municipalities with over 30,000 inhabitants the obligation to draw up Urban Traffic Plans (PUT, Piani Urbani del Traffico) aimed to improve urban traffic conditions and its environmental repercussions through the promotion of measures to rationalise road traffic in local urban contexts.
However, the subsequent Ministerial Decree “Sustainable Mobility in Urban Areas” (Mobilità sostenibile nelle aree urbane, website in Italian) issued on 27 March 1998 by the Italian Ministry of Environment was the first important reference for the purposes of Mobility Management.
This Decree required that Italian Regions were obliged to introduce measures for safeguarding air quality and introduced incentives for Municipalities to find solutions aimed to reduce the use of private cars, such as car sharing and car pooling solutions. The main innovation in the national regulatory scenario is however the introduction of the figure of the “Corporate Mobility Manager” and the obligation to adopt plans for home-work travel (PSCL, Piani per Spostamenti Casa-Lavoro) for large companies and organisations.
The Ministerial Decree “Encouragement of programs offered by corporate mobility managers” (Incentivazione dei programmi proposti dai mobility manager aziendali, website in Italian) issued on 20 December 2000 by the Italian Ministry of Environment subsequently introduced the figure of the “Mobility Coordinator”, i.e. a professional profile with a coordinating role in local administrations. In addition to assisting companies in drafting the PSCLs, encouraging their consistency with the municipal administration’s policies on road conditions, the Mobility Coordinator is called to promote inter-modality between traditional local transport services and complementary and innovative transport systems.
Regarding the themes of Mobility Management for rationalising local mobility and promoting environmental sustainability it is worth remembering the Law 340/2000 issued by the Italian Parliament on 24 November 2000: “Provisions for the delegation of rules and for the simplification of administrative procedures” (Disposizioni per la delegificazione di norme e per la semplificazione di procedimenti amministrativi, website in Italian) that introduced the concept of Urban Mobility Plans (PUM, Piani Urbani della Mobilità) for Municipalities with over 100,000 inhabitants.
The PUMs implied a more general approach to the question of urban mobility and concerned technological, organisational and management measures as well as the upgrade of mobility infrastructures. Among the subjects regulated by the PUMs there are regulations on roads and parking lots, local transport systems and traffic. The PUMs imply a medium-long term time horizon unlike the PUTs that, not contemplating infrastructural interventions, can be defined and applied in short time.
One of the last interesting legislative references is the Law 221/2015 issued by the Italian Parliament on 28 December 2015: “Environmental provisions to promote Green Economy measures and limit the massive use of natural resources” (“Disposizioni in materia ambientale per promuovere misure di green economy e per il contenimento dell’uso eccessivo di risorse naturali”, website in Italian).
At the article No. 5 “Provisions for encouraging sustainable mobility” this document requires to SUMPs (Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans) to verify solutions, with the support of companies that manage local transport services by road and rail for the improvement of services and their integration; ensure inter-modality and inter-change; encourage the use of bicycles and rental services for electric or low environmental impact vehicles; improve the transport of disabled people.
Recently the Italian Ministry of Environment and Protection of the Territory and the Sea, with the help of ENDURANCE (the European SUMP Network) has activated an Observatory on the state of implementation of the SUMPs in Italy, about which there is currently no official source.
The survey conducted so far, starting from all the 116 provincial capitals and metropolitan cities as well as the other municipalities belonging to the SUMPs Observatory, has been extended to official documents, municipal announcements, calls for tenders and information provided by the main companies that offer consulting services to the Municipalities. Currently in Italy there are only 9 approved SUMPs and 15 adopted.
Successful Mobility Management measures:
- Integration of public transport ticketing fares
- Season ticket co-financed by companies
- Promotion of community bike and car sharing
- Compulsory appointment of a mobility manager for companies with over 300 employees (Ministerial Decree of 27/03/1998 on “Sustainable Mobility in Urban areas”)
- Compulsory creation of a sustainable urban mobility plan (SUMP) for municipalities with over 100,000 inhabitants (Law no. 340/2000)
Main typicalities of the Country:
- In many cases the profile of Mobility Manager (MM) is poorly operational and its support depends on the availability of funding
- MM is considered predominantly as a site-based activity related to a site that generates traffic flows such as a company, a school, a hospital
- Bike sharing and car sharing services are considered as tools for sustainable mobility applied in Italy but not under the direct direction of the mobility manager
- In Italy there are 67 offices of area (55 at municipal level, 12 at provincial and wider area). There are about 840 Mobility Managers working within companies.
The concept of Mobility Management in Austria was included since the mid-1990s from several pilot projects supporting the development of sustainable transport in everyday-life transport (local bus-on demand services in Pöttsching, soft mobility in Werfenweng and the Neusiedler See region) and for companies (“soft mobility partnership”).
Since 2004 Austria carries out the klima:aktiv mobil programme, which currently is the major Mobility Management programme in this Country, managed by the Austrian Energy Agency. Since 2000 Austria is being developing a National network for Mobility Management called NEMO (Netzwerk für Mobilitätsmanagement, website in Austrian). The klima:aktiv mobil programme is part of the klima:aktiv (website in Austrian), a climate protection initiative from the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (Lebensministerium), that established specific measures for increasing climate and environmental protection in the field of mobility and transport.
Recently, based on the positive results in the last period, the klima:aktiv mobil programme is now being extended until 2020 in agreement with the Federal Ministry of Finance and includes:
- Mobility management for companies, property developers and fleet operators, cities and municipalities, regions, tourism and youth, children, parents and schools
- Eco-driving training for drivers of cars, trucks, buses, tractors and construction vehicles
- Promotion of bicycle traffic, infrastructure, rental, parking facilities (new) and electric vehicles and other electro-mobility solutions (plug-in hybrids, e-buses, trolleys, range extenders, eco-bonus for using renewable energy)
- Job tickets, alternative vehicles and expansion to include large enterprises
- Bonus for cooperative networking among funded partners
- Well-integrated packages of funding measures in infrastructure and logistics
- Special campaigns for youth mobility, schools and kindergartens
Investment incentives for e-mobility, cycling and mobility management and the eco-driving initiative are important contributions to the Austrian Climate Act, the Energy Efficiency Act and, above all, the new 2030 climate and energy strategy and the long-term future options for 2050.
Klimaaktiv mobil builds on partnerships (“Klimaaktiv mobil Netzwerk”, in Austrian) and is designed as national framework to move the relevant players in transport towards climate friendly mobility in order to reduce CO2-emissions, to promote renewable energy and stimulate the economy and green jobs in urban as well as in rural areas.
Despite the importance attached to Mobility Management in Austria as a tool to contribute to the greenhouse gases reduction, there are no specific incentives for its use in the business environment. Moreover, spatial planning (rather articulated in Austria and based on three levels: Federal, Regional, Local) has its own specific skills in the area of Mobility Management, often generating contradictions and overlaps between the different levels.
Successful Mobility Management measures:
- Klima:aktiv mobil programme: “tailor-made” mobility management programmes, targeted on specific target groups, such as enterprises, schools, municipalities, tourism
- Integration of MM and land use planning
- Bicycle promotion programmes
Main typicalities of the Country:
- Mobility Management considered as an effective instrument to contribute to Greenhouse gas mitigation and to transport sustainability
- No obligation for MM plans within companies (travel plans)
- Rather complex land use planning which negatively affects MM field: the three main levels have their own specific competences that sometimes contradicting each other in goals and contents.
In Slovenia the theme of Mobility Management is relatively recent (since 2004) and to date there are many initiatives in the country for cooperation between the government and local stakeholders for the organization of awareness campaigns on the topic. Specific mobility education programs are also provided in schools, in addition to safety education.
In general, however, there is a lack of awareness of the issue at the level of experts in the sector (there are no professional figures specifically trained on the theme) and little consideration of the opportunities that the Mobility Management can offer for the resolution of transport problems. The concept of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) was successfully adopted in the Country and now is becoming more and more a part of regular planning practice. The Country not only successfully tested and implemented the new concept but also presented an innovative web platform for promoting sustainable mobility, which serves as a model for other EU countries and regions.
SUMPs are recommended at all different planning levels and, in particular, not only at the urban level size recommended for cities with above 100,000 inhabitants but also for all small municipalities. With the creation of the Slovenian Platform for Sustainable Mobility (in 2012, website in Slovenian), Slovenia presented an advanced approach towards supporting cities and experts in developing and implementing their SUMP, something that has become interesting and relevant for the EU as a whole.
The SUMP for the urban region of Nova Gorica is the only SUMP prepared on the regional level; all others were developed for municipalities (Check the Eltis website)
The platform is a service for cities, municipalities and regions providing assistance for developing SUMPs with inputs such as national guidelines for SUMPs, regular lectures, trainings and workshops; newsletters, site visits, integration and co-ordination with the European Mobility Week.
Successful Mobility Management measures:
- Cooperation initiatives with key local stakeholders to organize awareness campaigns
- Introduction of Mobility Management in schools’ education programmes, in addition to safety education
Main typicalities of the Country:
- Weak awareness about opportunities offered by soft measures in the transport field, caused by a lack of high level professionals in the Mobility Management sector
- Mobility measures thus considered as not effective and lacking integration in the overall Mobility Management system
- Mobility Management measures are considered as an occasion to moderate predicted transport problems in new urban developments
In the United Kingdom, Mobility Management policies have been developed since the mid-1990s: MM is conceived not only as a home-to-work travel planning but as a real strategy for reducing traffic, improving accessibility and quality of life, climate and health. Mobility Management in UK is considered a national topic and has a broader focus than in many other countries: there are three ministerial departments in charge of mobility policies (see EPOMM, 2013):
- Department for Transport (DfT), which includes bicycling and smarter choices
- Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategies (BEIS), which deals with the development of the market for electric transport and reduction of CO2 emissions
- Department for Health and Social Care, which promotes walking and cycling activities
The Planning Policy Guidance 13 (1994) is considered the first reference about Mobility Management; the aim was to integrate planning and transport at the national, regional and local level, in order to promote more sustainable transport choices for both people and for moving freight; to promote accessibility to jobs, shopping, leisure facilities and services by public transport, walking and cycling; to reduce the need to travel, especially by car.
The “Creating Growth, Cutting Carbon. Making Sustainable Local Transport Happen” White Paper (Department for Transport, 2011) is another important reference: the vision is that of a transport system considered as an engine for economic growth, but one that is also greener and safer and improves quality of life. The idea is that encouraging sustainable local transport choices depends on local solutions: it is at the local level that most can be done to enable people to make more sustainable transport choices and to offer a wider range of genuinely sustainable transport modes, environmentally sustainable as well as fiscally, economically and socially sustainable.
A further element of interest should be pointed out: that is, the definition of Mobility Management strategies also for events and tourism. The importance of measuring tourism flows to leading cultural/historical sites is given by the fact that tourist pressure affects not only the resource, but also the whole surrounding area (city, region…) is now generally acknowledged.
Finally, it has to be noted that “Mobility Management” is the European term equating roughly to Transport Demand Management (TDM) – the “soft measures” aimed at travel behaviour change away from single-occupancy car use, sometimes referred to as “Smarter choices” or “Smarter Travel” in the UK.
Successful Mobility Management measures:
- Workplace Travel Plans in Urban Areas
- Cycle Super(CS) highways and bicycle promotion programmes
- London cycle hire scheme
- Smarter Travel Towns
- Lobbying for MM (Walking Britain, Walking England, Sustrans, Living Streets, Campaign for Better Transport, Act TravelWise)
- National MM networks
- Dimension of parking areas proportioned to number of users and inhabitants to grant adequate space and in the meanwhile reduce the number of vehicles
Main typicalities of the Country:
- Mobility Management includes reducing traffic congestion, increasing accessibility, quality of life, climate change and health: thus, it goes beyond business and home-to-work travel
- Mobility Management strategies for events and tourism
Links and references
EPOMM, European Platform on Mobility Management: http://www.epomm.eu
ELTIS, The Urban Mobility Observatory: http://www.eltis.org
ALLINX, European Association of Mobility Managers Professionals: https://www.allinx.eu/
The CIVITAS Initiative– Learning Centre: https://civitaslearningcenter.talentlms.com/catalog
INVOLVE, Involving the private sector into Mobility Management: http://www.involve-project.eu
Bremen Declaration on Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning in Europe:
Mobility Management – Tourism, Company and School travel plans – training manual:
CIVITAS Training on Company Mobility Management:
“Mobility Management in Europe”, Ing. Manfred Wacker, University of Stuttgart:
“La redazione del Piano Spostamenti Casa Lavoro”, Provincia di Torino:
“Mobilità sostenibile in 50 città italiane”, Euromobility, 2007:
“Mobility Management: the smart way to sustainable mobility in European countries, region and cities”, EPOMM, 2013:
“National SUMP Program: the approach of Slovenia”, 4th European Conference on SUMPs, Dubrovnik, 2017: