6 PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION AND EVALUATION

The European Union has developed several instruments to support the transparency and recognition of knowledge, skills, and competences to make it easier to study and work anywhere in Europe. The professions related to Mobility and Transport have a wide range of fields but there is no such a quality as an “official” recognition. The closest profession is the Mobility Manager, but it is often described as a set of competencies carried out by someone having a different role in the company or municipality.

However, lots of initiatives and courses related to mobility management and transport are nowadays implemented.

The aim of this chapter is to describe what the EU is doing in terms of competencies recognition and what the situation is in the countries involved in the S.T.R.E.E.T. project.

6.1 – What has been done so far in the European Union?

To date, a variety of initiatives have been launched to simplifying the transparency and recognition of skills and qualifications across Europe. These include:

  • The European Qualifications Framework (EQF), which helps compare national qualifications systems, frameworks and their levels to make qualifications more readable and understandable across different countries and systems in Europe
  • Validation of non-formal and informal learning is a way to recognise the full range of an individual’s knowledge, skills and competences, regardless if acquired within or outside the formal education system. If validated (identified, documented, assessed, and/or certified) these learning experiences can be made more visible and usable for further studies or work. Member countries are invited to put the necessary arrangements for validation in place by 2018. Guidelines for implementation of these arrangements in the member countries are being developed. A European Inventory is updated on a regular basis to provide an overview of good practices in the area of validation
  • Europass, a set of five standardised documents and a skills passport available for free in 26 languages, designed to enable users to present their skills, qualifications and experience across Europe
  • Credit systems, ECTS for higher education and ECVET for vocational education and training
  • Quality assurance arrangements in higher education and Vocational Education and Training

6.2 – At National level: national occupational classifications

Most Member States manage national classifications of occupations. In some Member States, regional or sectoral classifications exist as well. Such classifications can be mapped to ESCO (European Skills/Competences, qualifications and Occupations) to achieve semantic interoperability. The national occupational classifications of Member States are usually mapped to the ISCO (International Standard Classification of Occupations).

Examples of national occupational classifications:

6.3 – The European Qualification Framework

The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) is a common European reference framework whose purpose is to make qualifications more readable and understandable across different countries and systems. Covering qualifications at all levels and in all sub-systems of education and training, the EQF provides a comprehensive overview over qualifications in the 39 European countries currently involved in its implementation. In close cooperation with the European Commission, CEDEFOP (European Center for the Development of Vocational Training) provides analytical and coordination support for the implementation of the EQF and carries out a number of comparative studies and analysis on issues related to the implementation of the framework at EU, national and sectoral level.

The core of the EQF is its eight reference levels defined in terms of learning outcomes, i.e. knowledge, skills and autonomy-responsibility. Learning outcomes express what individuals know, understand and are able to do at the end of a learning process. Countries develop national qualifications frameworks (NQFs) to implement the EQF.

 

Why the EQF is important

The main purpose of the EQF is to make qualifications more readable and understandable across countries and systems. This is important to support cross-border mobility of learners and workers and lifelong learning across Europe. In the Find and Compare Qualifications Frameworks webpage it is possible to see how national qualifications levels of countries that have already finalised their referencing process have been linked to the EQF.

 

The legal basis of the EQF

The implementation of the EQF was based on the Recommendation on the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on 23rd April 2008.

Reflecting the success of implementing the 2008 recommendation, a revised and strengthened Recommendation on the EQF was adopted on 22nd May 2017 by the Education, Youth, Culture and Sport Council. The purpose of this revised recommendation is to ensure the continuity as well as a further deepening of the EQF.

 

The EQF implementation

The EQF has been the catalyst for development of comprehensive national qualification frameworks based on learning outcomes. All countries committed to the EQF consider such national frameworks necessary to make their qualifications comparable across sectors and countries.

By December 2017, 34 countries had linked (‘referenced’) their national qualifications levels to the EQF: Austria, Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Kosovo, Malta, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom (England, Scotland and Wales). Finland presented its referencing report in the December 2016 meeting of the EQF Advisory Group. The remaining countries are expected to follow in 2017-18, which means that the first stage of EQF referencing is nearly finished.

 

The EQF has been a source of inspiration for the development of national and regional qualifications frameworks throughout the world. An increasing number of countries and regions are seeking closer links between their qualifications framework and the EQF.

There are 8 levels in the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) and each level is defined by a set of descriptors indicating the learning outcomes relevant to qualifications at that level in any system of qualifications.  More details can be found in an exhaustive table at:

https://ec.europa.eu/ploteus/en/content/descriptors-page

6.4 – State of the Art in Europe and in the S.T.R.E.E.T. Countries (2017)

  • 39 countries are cooperating on the European qualifications framework implementation.
  • 35 countries have officially established or formally adopted their national qualifications frameworks (NQFs); 4 countries are still working on the design and/or the formal adoption of their NQFs;
  • 21 NQFs have reached operational status; Austria, Belgium (FL), Czech Republic (partial framework for vocational qualifications – NSK), Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK.
  • 35 countries are working towards comprehensive NQFs covering all types and levels of qualification from formal education and training (VET, HE, general education); and increasingly opening towards qualifications awarded outside formal education and training (e.g. Austria, Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Sweden)
  • 34 countries had formally linked (‘referenced’) their national qualifications frameworks to the EQF: Austria, Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom (England, Scotland and Wales). The remaining countries are expected to follow in 2018, which means that the first stage of EQF referencing is nearly finished.
  • 29 countries participating in the EQF implementation have also self-certified their framework against the Bologna framework (QF-EHEA), 20 jointly with the EQF referencing;
  • 23 countries have introduced NQF/EQF levels in national qualifications documents: Austria, Belgium (Flanders) Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Norway, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Switzerland;  17 in their national qualifications databases (Austria, Belgium (fl) Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta,  the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, Switzerland and UK).

The European Inventory has comprehensive documents on the state-of-the art of the EQF in all the European countries, the European inventory.

6.5 – Non-formal Learning

Why the validation of non-formal and informal learning?

“Real” life-long learning is about more than adding professional trainings and courses to your curriculum vitae. We also learn in non-formal ways, out of interest but without an approved syllabus, and even informally by experience, but without the deliberate intention to acquire knowledge or skills. The EU is engaging in activities to make sure that these alternative ways of learning are acknowledged, validated that may lead to a qualification.

 

What is the validation of non-formal and informal learning?

As highlighted in the New Skills Agenda for Europe of June 2016, people should be able to use the full range of their skills for their careers or for further learning – including what they acquired in non-formal or informal ways. Learning from whatever source has a value. These skills should be made visible and accounted for, for example to increase employability.

The validation process allows individuals in four distinct steps to i) identify, ii) document, iii) assess and iv) certify all forms of learning. Its impact can be significant in better matching skills and labour demand, promoting transferability of skills between companies and sectors, and supporting working and learning mobility between countries. It can also contribute to fighting social exclusion by providing a way to improve the employability of early school leavers, unemployed individuals, low-skilled adults and third country nationals.

 

When? – The 2012 Council Recommendation on validation encourages Member States to put in place national arrangements for validation by 2018. These arrangements should enable individuals to increase the visibility and value of their knowledge and skills acquired outside formal education and training: at work, at home or in voluntary activities.

 

How? – It is expected that by the end of 2018, a vast number of Member States will have taken concrete steps to provide individuals with the possibility to show and prove all the learning acquired during their life, also beyond formal education. The European Commission and the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) assist the Member States in this process. The European Guidelines on validation provide policy and practical advice to Member States and stakeholders on implementing validation. The European Inventory provides a unique record on how validation is used at national, regional and local level in Europe, illustrated by good practice examples. It further contains thematic analyses of key issues relating to the design and implementation of validation initiatives. These reports are a source of information to support dialogue between the different stakeholders in developing and implementing validation in Europe. The Guidelines and the Inventory are linked in the online database published by CEDEFOP. The EQF Advisory Group follows up on the implementation of the Council Recommendation (minutes and documents can be found in the Register of Commission Expert Groups.

 

Source: https://ec.europa.eu/ploteus/content/validation-non-formal-and-informal-learning

6.6 – The European Inventory

The European Inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning is a regularly updated overview of validation practices and arrangements across Europe. It is compiled in cooperation with the European Commission. The Inventory was endorsed by the Council Recommendation of 2012 on validation and works together with the European guidelines as a tool to support countries to develop and implement validation arrangements.

The inventory reports are a source of information to encourage more dialogue between the different stakeholders in developing and implementing validation in Europe. Our key objective is to support Member States so that more learners and workers acquire and make visible new skills to support their career and further learning and to enhance their quality of life.

The 2016 update of the Inventory provides a unique record on how validation is being used at national, regional and local level in Europe. It contains a state-of-play and overview of developments for 33 European countries since the 2014 update and is illustrated by good practice examples. It further contains four thematic reports relating to key issues in the design and implementation of validation initiatives. The Inventory is the end result of a two-year process and is based on the work of a large network of national experts, extensive review of documents and interviews with key stakeholders.

 

Source: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/events-and-projects/projects/validation-non-formal-and-informal-learning/european-inventory

6.7 – Training Opportunities and Resources

There are several training opportunities in the mobility, transport and sustainability sectors; however, being a field changing all the time, there is no fixed training yet.

Here are just some examples taken from “Learning Opportunities and Qualifications in Europe – Information about courses, work-based learning and qualifications” (Ploteus website):

In Italy, there are private short courses for mobility managers that are focused on specific targets such as “Mobility Management for the Public Organisations” or “Mobility Management for the schools”. In this particular case (School Education) a 2015 law introduced new regulations for promoting the green economy and introduced the role of “School Mobility Manager”. Unfortunately, the schools have no added budget for this activity.

A University in Italy, Università Niccolò Cusano, has just set up a course on Mobility Management.

Another organisation in Italy, Euromobility, a not-for-profit organization, developed and promoted the figure of the mobility manager within private companies and public administrations. Euromobility’s mission is to “create and spread a culture on sustainable mobility throughout the country. Encourage people and organisations to use eco-compatible transport modes and to act more responsibly in order to generate a better quality of life”.

In 2011 Euromobility was designated by the Italian Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea as National Focal Point for Italy in EPOMM.

Here are some training resources:

There are also many projects on the subject (a comprehensive database is available here).

6.8 – Other Resources

6.8.1 – The CIVITAS Initiative

CIVITAS is a network of cities for cities dedicated to cleaner, better transport in Europe and beyond. Since it was launched by the European Commission in 2002, along with the beginning of the 6th Framework Programme (FP6), the CIVITAS Initiative has tested and implemented over 800 measures and urban transport solutions as part of demonstration projects in more than 80 Living Lab cities Europe-wide.

The knowledge garnered through these practical experiences is complemented, and supported, by a number of research and innovation projects (ECCENTRIC, PORTIS and DESTINATIONS), also run under CIVITAS. These research projects look at ways of building a more resource efficient and competitive transport system in Europe.

CIVITAS offers practitioners opportunities to see innovative transport solutions being developed and deployed first-hand and learn from peers and experts working in the field. CIVITAS nurtures political commitment, new marketable solutions, and offers funding and knowledge exchange with a view to creating growth and better connected, more sustainable transport modes.

The initiative focuse on 10 thematic areas, related to sustainable transport mobility, covering: Car-Independent Lifestyles, Clean Fuels & Vehicles, Collective Passenger Transport, Demand Management Strategies, Integrated Planning, Mobility Management, Public Involvement, Safety & Security, Transport Telematics, Urban Freight Logistics.

The “Civitas Learning Centre” contains a large library of e-learning resources about all aspects of sustainable mobility. Below you can filter this collection of past eCourses, recorded webinars, presentations given at webinars, training material, etc. By selecting multiple criteria it is possible to narrow down the search results whereas by leaving a filter empty, the results obtained will be the same as if all options in a given field were selected.

The e-courses are individual courses that can be followed online, anywhere, anytime. Each e-course is concluded with an online test and certificates are given to participants who have successfully passed the course. An e-course takes approximately 1-2 hours.

The thematic group on mobility management can be found here.

6.8.2 – EPOMM and ECOMM

EPOMM is the European Platform on Mobility Management, a network of governments in European countries that are engaged in Mobility Management (MM). They are represented by the Ministries that are responsible for MM in their countries. EPOMM is organised as an international non-profit organisation based in Leuven (BE).

 

ECOMM (The European Conference on Mobility Management) has developed itself as the annual meeting place for mobility management practitioners and experts all over Europe.

ECOMM is a 3-day event with excursions, keynote speeches, an exhibition, 50-80 presentations and workshops and lots of opportunities for making new contacts. It takes place every year in May in a European city selected by EPOMM and attracts 300-400 delegates. Papers are selected by an International Programme Committee (IPC) with appointed experts from all EPOMM member states. The programme is developed in a cooperation between the host city, the IPC and EPOMM. EPOMM takes care that the ECOMM maintains its agreeable size, its high quality and also strives for its continuous improvement.

 

The history from ECOMM to EPOMM

The European Conference on Mobility Management was founded as the final conference of the MOMENTUM research project in 1997 in Amsterdam. The International Programme Committee (IPC) was formed and decided to develop it into a series and the next host was Nottingham in the UK in 1998. It became obvious that there was a necessity to develop a platform to provide some continuity. In 1999 EPOMM was established, first as a European project, and since 2003 as an international association. Since 1997, the ECOMM takes place every year and so far was organised in 19 cities in 8 different countries.

Presentations and Photos from the 21st ECOMM held in Maastricht (NL) in 2017 are available on this webpage.

In the EPOMM website it is possible to find material concerning the previous conferences.

6.8.3 – ELTIS, the Urban Mobility Observatory

ELTIS facilitates the exchange of information, knowledge and experiences in the field of sustainable urban mobility in Europe. It is aimed at individuals working in transport as well as in related disciplines, including urban and regional development, health, energy and environmental sciences.

Created more than 10 years ago, ELTIS is now the Europe’s main observatory on urban mobility, funded by the European Commission’s Directorate General for Mobility and Transport (DG MOVE).

Under three key themes – DISCOVER, RESOURCES, PARTICIPATE – ELTIS provides information, good practices, tools and communication channels needed to help turn cities into models of sustainable urban mobility.

The dedicated MOBILITY PLANS section offers a hub of information on how to develop and implement Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) as the need for more sustainable and integrated planning processes in Europe grows.

 

What will you find on ELTIS?

ELTIS enables to DISCOVER sustainable urban mobility. In particular:

News presents a regular round-up of local, regional and European news related to sustainable urban mobility

Case studies presents and analyses successful local examples of sustainable urban mobility initiatives and strategies

Facts & figures provides a range of statistical data on sustainable urban mobility

Topics outlines the key sustainable urban mobility related subjects covered by ELTIS

EU legislation & policies contains information on legislation and policy developments on sustainable urban mobility

 

ELTIS RESOURCES support action and promotion of sustainable forms of mobility in your region or city.

Tools contains tools, guides, handbooks and reports to support and inform urban mobility professionals in their work

Photos hosts a gallery of images you can use to promote urban mobility

Videos features outstanding examples of sustainable urban mobility approaches

Training materials presents training and educational materials produced in the sustainable urban mobility fields

EU funding brings together the current EU funding opportunities and programmes that are accessible for local governments

Press & promo contains ELTIS and Mobility Plans platform promotional materials (such as logos, templates) as well as material from events and seminars

 

Source: http://www.eltis.org/resources/training

6.9 – Professional Profile in the S.T.R.E.E.T. Project

According to the ESCO classification[1], the professional profile goal of the S.T.R.E.E.T. Project is closely linked to the “Transport Planner” profile.

 

Description – Traffic planners develop and implement policies in order to improve transport systems, taking into account the social, environmental and economic factors. They collect and analyse traffic data using statistical modelling tools.

 

Among the competencies and skills of the profile the learners in Street Project have acquired the following:

Essential Skills and Competencies

  • analyse environmental data
  • analyse road traffic patterns:
  • analyse test data:
  • analyse transport business networks
  • analyse transport studies
  • analyse transportation costs:
  • apply statistical analysis techniques
  • conduct environmental surveys
  • develop urban transport studies
  • identify statistical patterns
  • monitor traffic flow
  • regulate traffic
  • report analysis results
  • study traffic flow

Essential Knowledge

  • environmental legislation
  • environmental policy
  • geographical routes
  • public law
  • statistics
  • traffic engineering
  • urban planning
  • urban planning law

Optional Skills and Competencies

  • educate public on road safety
  • give live presentation
  • manage car park operations
  • match vehicles with routes
  • prepare technical reports
  • promote public transport
  • simulate transport problems

Optional Knowledge

  • local geography
  • parking regulations
  • rail infrastructure
  • road traffic laws
  • train routes

The sixth CEDEFOP National Qualifications Framework (NQF) monitoring report confirms that NQFs play a key role in the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) implementation and in improving transparency and comparability of qualifications nationally and internationally.

However, the visibility and use of the certification by the labour market is still limited. Sustainability, visibility to end-users, stakeholder involvement, ownership of the process, and consensus-building are among the conditions critical to successful NQF use and impact.

(National qualifications framework developments in European countries)

Regarding the recognition of the non-formal learning, such as the S.T.R.E.E.T. Project, the 2012 Council recommendation on validation encourages Member States to put in place national arrangements for validation by 2018. These arrangements will enable individuals to increase the visibility and value of their knowledge, skills and competences acquired outside formal education and training: at work, at home or in voluntary activities.

The latest documents are from 2016 and provide a unique record on how validation is being used at national, regional and local level in Europe. It contains a state-of-play and overview of developments for 33 European countries since the 2014 update and is illustrated by good practise examples. It further contains four thematic reports relating to key issues in the design and implementation of validation initiatives. The Inventory is the final result of a two-year process and is based on the work of a large network of national experts, extensive review of documents and interviews with key stakeholders.

(Validation of non-formal and informal learning)

[1] ESCO is the multilingual classification of European Skills, Competences, Qualifications and Occupations. ESCO is part of the Europe 2020 strategy. The ESCO classification identifies and categorises skills, competences, qualifications and occupations relevant for the EU labour market and education and training. It systematically shows the relationships between the different concepts.

6.9.1 – Focus on Austria

National developments towards a national strategy for validation of non-formal and informal learning started in 2013 and are strongly linked to both the Austrian Lifelong Learning Strategy (LLL: 2020, 2011) as well as to the development of the National Qualifications Framework (NQF). The Council Recommendation on validation as well as the implementation of the European Credit System in Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) also play an important role in this process. Steering groups and working groups have been set up for supporting coordination across sectors.

Since the 2014 Inventory, important developments have taken place particularly in relation to the national validation strategy and the implementation of the NQF. Until now, there has been no uniform framework for validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning in Austria. Within the education and training system, a number of different Acts and Regulations enable formal education and training institutions (general education, vocational education and training, and higher education) to recognise learning outcomes acquired in non-formal and informal settings (for example, in the context of ‘external exams’). Many validation initiatives and arrangements are linked to the sector of adult education (in many cases in the context of second chance education) and some measures can also be identified in other fields (such as the labour market and the third sector). These initiatives were mainly developed from bottom-up processes with the involvement of relevant stakeholders (such as social partners). The national validation strategy intends to provide a platform and framework for the development and coordination of all of these initiatives and to provide potential users with an overview of relevant available measures

 

More details here.

6.9.2 – Focus on Italy

As a result of years of debate and initiatives since 2012, a national legal framework on validation has progressively developed in Italy:

■ The National Law 92/2012, reforming the Labour market, foresees the immediate institution of a national system of competence certification and validation of non-formal and informal learning.

■ Subsequently on 16 January 2013, the national Legislative Decree on the national certification of competence and validation of non-formal and informal learning was declared, starting with an implementation phase.

 

On 30 June 2015, an Inter-ministerial Decree, DI (Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Education) defined the National Framework of Regional Qualifications according to Decree 13/2013. According to this new framework, the background in which local and sectoral validation practitioners work in Italy has now fundamentally changed. In order to provide more detail, the National Framework of Regional Qualifications, defined through DI 30 June 2015, established:

  1. A mechanism of mutual recognition among regional qualifications
  2. Process, attestation and system standard procedures for the services of identification/validation of non-formal and informal learning and certification of competences

 

There is already some concrete application of these rules for specific target groups (a national programme is being run over the course of 2015/2016 to validate the competences of approximately 5,000 civil service volunteers within the Youth Guarantee Programme).

Moreover, the National Technical Committee (which according to Decree 13/2013 is the institutional authority in charge of the implementation of the system) decided to define a draft of National Guidelines on validation of non-formal and informal learning and certification of competences by the end of 2016. This means that a framework could be defined in Italy to also include school education and HE, where there is still a lack of regulatory tools on validation.

In conclusion, there has been a decisive shift in Italy to a more concrete and comprehensive stage in the implementation of a national strategy on validation

 

More details here.

6.9.3 – Focus on Slovenia

Slovenia does not have a long tradition in the validation of prior learning; however, the country is taking the first steps towards establishing an overarching national system of validation. In 2016, the national qualification framework, the SQF, was legally adopted. The SQF is referenced to the EQF. In addition to the SQF, the Ministry responsible for education has invited all institutions involved in the validation of non-formal and informal learning (up to the tertiary level) to start developing an overarching, national system for validation that will include common standards, processes and quality assurance. At this point in time, validation is done individually by each institution, even though common practices can be observed.

Validation is most developed and implemented in the CVET sector where processes are centralised to some extent at national level. On the other hand, the validation system is completely decentralised at higher education level, where it is performed individually in each school or department. Institutions responsible for validation are public and their core function is funded by the government, while single validation processes are paid for by applicants.

The validation process typically includes assembling a portfolio with evidence of prior learning and experience. This portfolio is then analysed by a validation practitioner or a validation committee who may request extra evidence from the applicant either in the form of an interview, a test, a performance or additional documentation.

In the CVET sector, whole qualifications may be awarded as a result of validation determined under the National Professional Qualifications Act that provides the legal framework for validation of non-formal and informal knowledge for the labour market. On IVET and higher education level only partial validation is possible, the result of validation can be the award of credits for a single course or a module within a study programme (ECTS points).

 

More details here.

6.9.4 – Focus on United Kingdom

There is a number of routes through which learners can have their non-formal and informal learning recognised and validated in England and Northern Ireland. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is used in relation to formal, regulated qualifications. In vocational education, RPL is mainly used to tailor the learning offer and in higher education (HE) it can be used for access, exemption and award. Progress and achievement in non-regulated learning (non-accredited learning) can be recognised through a five-stage process known as RARPA (Recognising And Recording Progress and Achievement), which however does not lead to any form of certification. National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) represent an opportunity to validate workplace learning. They are aimed mainly at people in work and lead to a nationally-recognised qualification, proving the ability to perform an occupation to a nationally-recognised occupational standard.

There are also some separate validation initiatives in the third sector. However, there is no system in place to coordinate validation activities taking place in the different sectors. There have been no notable developments relating specifically to RPL in the UK since 2014.

There is no specific strategy devoted to RPL but it is referenced in both the Skills Funding Agency and Ofqual policies for funding and qualifications, respectively. The Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF) has been replaced by the Regulated Qualifications Framework (RQF), which is part of a policy approach seeking to devolve responsibility from national level to Awarding Organisations and learning providers. This means that the actual offer of RPL depends on the providers themselves.

The process is designed to be self-governing and allow for RPL to be accredited where it is relevant to do so, but not to impose an overly rigid model on those who deliver qualifications. The advantage is that each validation process and even each individual procedure of validation can be tailored to the learner(s) assessed, but the potential disadvantage is that without a greater drive at national level, it is likely that the numbers of people actually benefiting from RPL opportunities will remain low.

 

More details here.

6.10 – Experiment in Italy with learners in the S.T.R.E.E.T. Project

Within the project, ENGIM learners, who participated in the S.T.R.E.E.T. learning activities had a certificate of participation, issued by the coordinator and, for each learning activities, learning agreements have been set up and, at the end of the project the Europasses will be issued.

Besides, as the project coordinator is based in the Italian region of Piedmont where a system of recognition of competencies was set up, ENIGIM tried to certificate the competencies of learners. ENGIM PIEMONTE is an organisation accredited to certificate the competencies acquired through work-placements and different experiences.

ENIGIM used the “Atlante del Lavoro e delle Qualificazioni” which has a list of professions and related competencies according to the ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics) classification. ENGIM searched which competencies and professional profiles could be connected to those acquired in the project and extracted those areas of activity related. They then certificated those competencies which can be transformed into credits.

For those learners residing in Piedmont the competencies have also been inserted into the labour market data base system which is the database of each worker. In the section “Further professional experience” these activities have been listed and their counterpart will be the workers CV.

Links and references

 

Most documents and references in this chapter are taken from materials produced by CEDEFOP, European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, agency of the European Union:

http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/

 

Decision No 2241/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 December 2004 on a single Community framework for the transparency of qualifications and competences (Europass)

 

A Framework for Qualifications for the European Higher Education Area; Bologna Working Group on Qualifications Frameworks, published by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Copenhagen, February 2005

http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/documents/050218_QF_EHEA.pdf

http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-9620-2017-INIT/en/pdf

 

Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on the establishment of a European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) – (2009/C 155/02)

 

ESCO Strategic Framework Document of the EU 28.07.2017

 

COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION of 20 December 2012 on the validation of non-formal and informal learning (2012/C  398/01)

 

http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/events-and-projects/projects/validation-non-formal-and-informal-learning/european-inventory

 

https://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/

 

https://ec.europa.eu/education/resources/european-credit-transfer-accumulation-system_en

 

http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/vocational-policy/ecvet_en

 

https://ec.europa.eu/education/resources/european-tertiary-education-register_en

 

http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/vocational-policy/eqavet_en

 

https://ec.europa.eu/esco/portal/escopedia/Occupation

 

https://ec.europa.eu/esco/portal/escopedia/International_Standard_Classification_of_Occupations_%2528ISCO%2529

 

https://www.vdab.be/competent

 

https://statistik.arbeitsagentur.de/Navigation/Statistik/Grundlagen/Klassifikation-der-Berufe/Klassifikation-der-Berufe-Nav.html

 

https://www.pole-emploi.fr/candidat/les-fiches-metiers-@/index.jspz?id=681

 

http://www.ams.at/bis/bis/BerufsstrukturBaum.php

 

http://atlantelavoro.inapp.org/

 

https://ec.europa.eu/ploteus/content/descriptors-page

 

http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/events-and-projects/projects/learning-outcomes

 

www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/events-and-projects/projects/national-qualifications-frameworks

 

https://ec.europa.eu/ploteus/en/compare

 

http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/4163_en.pdf

 

http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/european-inventory-on-nqf?search=&year%5bvalue%5d%5byear%5d=2016&country=&items_per_page=20

 

http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/events-and-projects/networks

 

http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=1223

 

http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/4054

 

http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/european-database-on-validation-of-non-formal-and-informal-learning

 

https://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en

 

http://civitas.eu/learning-centre

 

http://epomm.eu/

 

http://www.eltis.org/mobility-plans

 

https://www.allinx.eu/

 

https://ec.europa.eu/transport/about-us_en

 

http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/competences_validation/2016_validate_AT.pdf

 

http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/competences_validation/2016_validate_IT.pdf

 

http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/competences_validation/2016_validate_Sl.pdf

 

http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/competences_validation/2016_validate_UK_EN.pdf

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