In this chapter we report the experience made by students in the 2nd part of the S.T.R.E.E.T. project and classified as Specialised Course.
The idea was to provide students not only with theoretical lessons learned online (Basic Course) but also with practical live examples of different situations that an Expert Manager of Sustainable Mobility and Tourism could deal with during their career:
- London (UK) – “Traffic Congestion and Safety: problems and solutions in the largest European capital”
- Werfenweng (AT) – “Soft Mobility and Tourism: good practices of sustainability in an Alpine territory”
- Bled (SLO) – “Reducing Environmental Impact in a Touristic town: from mobility policies to mobility solutions”
- Turin (IT) – “Turin and Piedmont on the move between Tradition and Innovation”
The goal of the London Study Visit was to show students how the largest city in Europe can be visited entirely by using the wide offer of public transport. Bike sharing, car sharing services and suburban trains were not included in the visit for logistic reasons.
All these services can be paid by using one electronic payment tool only: The Oyster contactless card that can be topped up online or at ticket machines located in every tube station and many shops in the city. Students could enjoy the concept of multi-modality and how information to travellers is provided in different way according to different transport services.
Visits to some main train stations were also included in the tour as travelling by train is very common in the UK and, specifically for London, there are hundreds of thousands of commuters reaching every day the city by train that then use several means of transport.
The 5-day visit was organised in two phases:
DAY 1 and DAY 2 – classroom lessons
The first one and half days of the study visit were dedicated to lectures and lessons at the University College London (UCL). Dr Ing Stefano Mainero (EPN Consulting Ltd Founder & CEO, London) introduced the theme of the London Study Visit, a brief study of London and presented how the integrated public transport system in London is organised along with the ticketing system and the high level of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) solutions that manage urban traffic and public transport. Other themes such as travel maps and services for private cars: congestion charge scheme, parking slots, Low-Emission Zone (LEZ) and the Ultra-Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) were also discussed: [Transport in London No.1 and No.2].
In the first lecture, “The Innovative Concepts for Mobility in London”, Dr Maria Kamargianni (Head of MaaSLab at the UCL Energy Institute) presented the innovative concepts of mobility in London. Her research activity included travel behaviour modelling, transportation systems analysis, new mobility services and business models including “MaaS” (Mobility as a Service)
The second lecture, “The Journey of Transport and Tourism in London over the last 20 years”,
was given by Mr Giles Bailey (Stratageeb Ltd. Director) who showed the evolution of the evolution of London public transport, ticketing and Tourists experience in the last 20 years thanks to the introduction of the engagement strategy for the Visitors Industry.
The third lecture was dedicated to the theme of “The Adaptive Behaviour in Mode Choice” and
presented by Dr Margherita Mascia (EPN Consulting Senior ITS Expert) and Dr Ing Stefano Mainero. This lecture was focused on the new London Mayor’s Transport Strategy (June 2017), the “Legible London” and the new, clean, technologies (hydrogen-powered buses, electric buses and electric taxis).
DAY 2 to DAY 5 – field visits
Three and half days were spent travelling in London to visit crucial areas of the city whilst using the whole public transport system. The itinerary was designed to cover fare zones 1 to 3 only (in total there are 9 zones) in order to reduce the cost of travelling as in London public transport is very expensive, although using the Oyster card one can enjoy discounted fares. Only once did we travel to zone 6 by underground to visit Heathrow airport Terminal 5 for two reasons described below.
During the visit students travelled by rail (underground, ground and overground level), by road, by cable car and waterborne. In particular, they:
- experienced travelling on a Hydrogen-powered bus that since 2010 serves Tourist route
- visited some major train stations: Victoria, King’s Cross, St. Pancras International (where depart also trains to Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam), Paddington, Wimbledon, etc.
- travelled by London Overground and enjoyed other kinds of multi-modality
- travelled by Emirates Air line Cable Car connecting North Greenwich (interconnected with the Jubilee underground line) to the Royal Docks (interconnected with the Docklands Light Railway)
- travelled by MBNA Thames Clipper (river service)
- travelled by Underground (Piccadilly line) to Heathrow, the largest European airport (77 million passengers per year) that allow tourists to be environmentally sustainable and pay 1/10 of taxi fares
- took on the Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) service (automated vehicles) that transfer passengers from/to the Heathrow T5 terminal and parking areas
- learned what being a Legible City means for pedestrians (Tourists and residents)
- visited the Victoria Coach Station where depart the majority of coaches to tens of destination in the UK and Europe
- learned about the Cycle Superhighways and how cyclists can ride their bikes in safe, segregated lanes. In London it is possible to travel multi-modal by using folding bikes that can carry on board underground, trains,
- learned how easy is to reach some top London’s touristic destinations such as the Westminster Abbey and the Shard by public transport
DAY 2 – In the afternoon, when classroom lessons ended, the active visit started with the following programme:
Departure point: UCL – Heading to:
- King’s Cross Railway Station (and related streetscape design)
- St Pancras International Railway Station (inc. direct high-speed services to Paris and Brussels)
- St Pancras – Heathrow T5 (Tube) [goal: Pods/Personal Rapid Transit]
- Heathrow T5 – South Kensington (Tube) [goal: car-pedestrian shared space]
It was dedicated to see Signs to suit the surrounding in London “Legible City”, streetscape design in King’s Cross railway station, way-finding and multimodality in St. Pancras International Railway Station, the “POD” (Personal Rapid Transit) at Heathrow Airport connecting the Terminal 5 with two parking lots. The visit ended with looking at and discussing pros and cons of Car-Pedestrian Shared Space in South Kensington
DAY 3 – The goal of the 3rd day was the visit some multi-modal transport hubs, travelling by hydrogen-powered bus and by air line cable car as well as appreciate the innovative Greenwich borough, the O2 area (large venue hosting concerts and exhibitions) and “Bank” that is not only one of the Tube stations with lots of underground lines, but also the heart of the financial centre of London known as “the City”.
Departure point: Victoria Railway Station – Heading to:
- Victoria Railway Station (inside)
- Victoria Coach Station (walk)
- Victoria Station – Temple (Tube)
- Temple – Catherine St. (walk)
- Catherine St – Tower Gateway [goal: Hydrogen-powered Bus]
- Tower Gateway – Canning Town (DLR) [goal: Docklands Light Railway, DLR]
- Canning Town – Stratford Station (DLR) [goal: multi-modal hub]
- Stratford Station – North Greenwich (Tube)
- The O2
- Greenwich Peninsula – Royal Docks [goal: Emirates Air Line Cable Car]
- Royal Docks – Bank (DLR) [goal: The City’s multi-modal hub]
- Bank out and about
DAY 4 – The aim of the fourth day was to visit additional multi-modal transport hubs as well as use several kinds of means of transport. Besides, it was planned the visit to the ExCel Exhibition Centre that can host multiple events in parallel, which attracts thousands of visitors accessing the area at the time. Finally, the visit terminated at one of the most popular and populated touristic areas of London: the House of Parliament, the “Big Ben” and the Westminster Abbey.
Departure point: Victoria Railway Station – Heading to:
- Victoria – Wimbledon (Tube)
- Wimbledon – West Croydon [goal: Tram + multi-modal hub]
- West Croydon – Shadwell [goal: Overground + inter-modal hub]
- Shadwell – Prince Regent (DLR) for ExCel
- ExCel London
- ExCel – Royal Docks (walk)
- Royal Docks – Canning Town (DLR)
- Canning Town – North Greenwich (Tube)
- North Greenwich – Westminster [goal: Thames Clipper/River Bus]
- Parliament/Big Ben + Westminster Abbey (Walk) [goal: major London Touristic sites]
DAY 5 – The final day of the London Study Visit was designed to be a bit lighter and that’s why students were taken to “Bird Street”, a short street located a few minutes’ walk from the Oxford Circus Tube Station. It is for pedestrians only and shows a sustainable technology that produces energy by walking on a specific path. Other examples of good and efficient wayfinding signs were spotted and described around Central London.
The group moved to the Paddington Train Station that was an additional example of multi-modal hub. It was shown how easy it is to use three different modes of transport: train, bus and tube, reachable in just 5 minutes’ walk. Cyclists can arrive to the Station by bike and load it on the train but recently they must have a cycle reservation if travelling with a non-folding bike on High Speed services.
The final part of the visit included the London Bridge Tube Station whose surroundings are full of services and well designed. Several digital information panels show information about weather conditions, advertisements, local services and transport information. A nice corridor led to the special view of Tower Bridge, where the visit ended.
Departure point: Oxford Circus, Heading to:
- Oxford Circus – Bird Street – Oxford Circus (walk) [goal: wayfinding + eco-smart street]
- Oxford Circus – Paddington Railway Station (Tube)
- Paddington Railway Station [goal: multi-modal hub]
- Paddington – London Bridge Station (Tube) [goal: multi-modal hub]
- London Bridge – the Shard – “More London” (walk)
- London Study Visit wrap up
- The LONDON Study Visit Programme: http://www.streetproject.eu/?page_id=449
- #LearnedInLondon: http://www.streetproject.eu/?page_id=748
The 2nd Study Visit, dedicated to “Soft Mobility and Tourism: good practices of sustainability in an Alpine territory”, was held in Werfenweng (Austria). Eco-sustainable tourism and mobility experiences: in Salzburg’s surrounding areas, students tried different soft mobility experiences thanks to the provision of a large fleet of electric vehicles (cars, bicycles, pedelecs, etc.), discussed the SAMO Project with the local administration and attended the “Tourism Mobility Day” Conference.
DAY1 – In the first day of the Study Visit, students were asked to test as “normal tourists” the offers of the Werfenweng SAMO-Card (“SAMO” is the abbreviation for “Sanfte Mobilität” which means Soft Mobility): service quality, how to get info about offers, degree of satisfaction with the experiences offered, etc. The SAMO-Card idea is simple: buying the personal card for a small fee (€10) and enjoying environmentally friendly transport solutions such as e-cars and all other e-vehicles in Werfenweng.
The SaMo Card – guests who stay at a SaMo-host and arrive either by train or drop their car keys at the tourist office get the SaMo-Card for a small fee of €10 per Person.
The card allows them to a free use of a whole car pool, fun vehicles, shuttle to and from Bischofshofen, local public taxi, guided walks and hikes, bus trips to Salzburg and other sights (in summer) and plenty of other benefits.
The SaMO-card is financed through contributions of the SaMo-hosts
25% of the Werfenweng-guests arrive by train
Tourism business significantly benefits from the concept (massive increase in overnight stays)
Further information on the SaMo project can be found in Chapter 3.
DAY2 – The second day scheduled a Visit of the Mobilito, the Mobility Agency, in the Railway Station of Bischofshofen (Austria) with an interview with the Director Stephan Maurer.
Mobilito is the mobility management company of the regional association Pongau and its 25 municipalities; its main objective is to promote soft mobility without a private car, therefore:
- they provide customers with detailed information on schedules and timetables
- assist in finding the best connections to destination
- provide detailed information on barrier-free travel
- consult companies and tourism operators in terms of mobility
- develop attractive packages together with tourism or event operators
- the travel agency Urlaub vom Auto sells tickets and reservations for all kinds of trains in Europe
The visit was followed by the presentation of the SAMO Project in Werfenweng by the Director of the Tourism Association Mr Bernd Kiechl: history, status quo and challenges for the future were the themes discussed.
The students were asked to compare the offer in Werfenweng with card systems and mobility offers of other regions and contexts (countryside/big towns) and to work together in order to elaborate proposals and suggestions for further developments of the SAMO Project.
‘Wir SaMo’ was initiated a few years ago to increase authenticity of the project by participating locals and residents of Werfenweng and furthermore to promote the idea of soft mobility among this group, so they can become multipliers of the idea –towards guests and other residents. In particular:
- residents or locals who come to Werfenweng on a regular basis can book different soft mobility packages (annual contracts)
- main objective of all packages is to reduce cars mileage by using the soft mobility services in Werfenweng
- the packages target are families (e.g. to discourage taking children to school by car), commuters (inbound, outbound and within the commune), teenagers (e.g. to use e-scooters instead of mopeds), elderly people (to use the services for shopping and cultural trips)
- another objective is to convince families of getting rid of the 2nd car and/ or do without the car once a week
- all packages include different vouchers for the soft mobility services, reduced rates for the use of the e-car-sharing and plenty of other benefits (free use of the swimming lake in summer, co-skiing tracks, trips, parties, etc..)
DAY3 – The goal of the third day was Working in Groups: interviews with tourists in Werfenweng and with Marcus Klein, director of Gut Wenghof, discussing their impressions of the SAMO card with an important local tourism promoter (Watch the video here).
- SaMo project made Werfenweng very visible/prominent as a touristic destination
- nevertheless, it is quite expensive for the hosts and there are still some accommodation providers who are not willing to become a member (30% of beds) and promote the idea of SaMo and soft mobility
- some of Werfenweng’s inhabitants do not know about SaMo (also not WirSaMo) because they may think that it is not relevant to them (neither tourism nor SaMo) – generally because of lack of information
- besides, some guests complain about the price of SaMo-card finding it too expensive and don´t want to pay for each family member (it would be important for the promotion to underline the high value of the received services – about €226 per person perholiday)
- the Tourism board needs to find a better way to advertise the services and advantages of SaMo to improve promotional efforts
A nice guided trekking excursion in the region of Werfenweng represented a great experience for students.
Werfenweng holds many opportunities for active and relaxing holidays with: e.g. cross-country-skiing, winter-hiking, skiing, sledging, paragliding, snowshoeing, horse-drawn sleigh rides and many more winter activities. In Summer guests enjoy excessive hikes and bike tours in the Tennen mountains, paragliding, climbing, horse riding or swimming in the lake (summer activities).
Furthermore, Werfenweng focuses on connoisseurs of regional cuisine (Restaurants in Werfenweng).
A very special service in Werfenweng is ‘Genuss Pension’: guests who stay in B&Bs or holiday apartments, which offer breakfast only, can book this half board option and choose from 9 different local restaurants for their daily dinner.
DAY4 – The fourth day was dedicated to the Tourism Mobility Day Conference: keynote speeches about the future of touristic mobility and information for tourism promoters and guests. Panels with projects from the 7 alpine countries and discussions about:
- Touristic mobility of tomorrow
- Sustainable mobility in touristic municipalities
- Travelling by train through the Alps
- Guest cards make mobile
- What are the entrepreneurial challenges for Alpine destinations?
- How do mobility offers contribute?
- What is missing for a sustainable, successful business model?
Challenges: volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous is ‘the new normal’, makes it very hard to target and bind customers. For this reason:
- can soft mobility be used as a distinguishing feature? >> it`s an important topic but main distinguishing feature for only 2%
- cross-border traffic is mainly operated by plane or individual transport-> public transport is a niche – but soft mobility destinations cannot just run on domestic tourism (day-trippers)
- continuous innovations and investments are necessary to be competitive, at the same time revenues are very small in the tourism industry
Potentials of public transport for tourism destinations are:
- ca. 28% of day-trippers use public transport
- ca. 50% of visitors travel to car-free destinations (e.g. Saas-Fee) by public transport
- automated driving vehicles hold potential for periphery areas because they can operate on demand and without high labour cost
- car sharing is an option (not for the large groups though), but not the very best one because there will still be traffic, pollution and a shortage of parking lots
A Sustainable Business model should:
- generate USP, assets (tangible and intangible) that are hard to imitate
- include a sustainable stakeholder management (include partners, locals and guest in the process of defining a destinations vision and profile)
- create offers/packages “in-house”, so returns stay with the company
CIPRA (SLO) Sustainable mobility in the Alps
CIPRA is an NGO, founded to protect and develop the Alps in sustainable ways such as:
- carrying capacity in protected (mountain) areas are normally lower than in other less fragile ecosystems – at the same time do they hold a high economic potential > field of tension
- inhabitants, visitors, managers and suppliers generate traffic in protected areas, it needs to be managed trough: infrastructure, mobility means, mobility need and objects which generate traffic demands (e.g. visitor centres)
- using large events to promote soft mobility through good organisation, communication, awareness and education
- teaching soft mobility at schools (develop concepts with locals, parents, teachers and kids)
BEST and GOOD PRACTICE examples
Werfenweng (AT), SaMo Card – already described
Braunwald (CH), car-free mobility
- 2-hour by train from Zürich, cableway takes visitors to the city
- A car-free family oasis where children play, parents recharge their batteries and grandparents can be inspired
- 3 Modules to realise the mobility system: A. Exploitation of the first and last kilometre -> incentives to use public transport, B. Relocation of the mountain station of the cable car -> guarantee and improve access to the skiing area C. Braunwald mobility system -> based on politics, technology, organisation and marketing with the goal to reduce polluting emissions
Adamello Brenta Nature Park (IT)
- Geopark as USP, Val Genova shuttle bus (17km, €1 each leg) or wheeled train (€3 each leg), Malga Ritort wheeled train (foc),” Panorama Tour” mobility network (€2 each leg or €7 daily pass)
- funded through fees payed by municipalities, tourist offices and visitors
Rail Away (CH)
- subsidiary company of SBB, with the vision to inspire with leisure ideas, thereby promoting the use of public transport
- largest network of service and cooperation partners (ca. 700) with the intention to combine public transport and tourism products to inspire leisure ideas -> thereby help service partners to win new customers + offer support in marketing and advertising platforms
- support cooperation partners in customer loyalty programmes
- market segmentation is the key, not only to understand customers’ demand and behaviour, but also to be more efficient in the use of resources and synergies
Fahrtziel Natur (CH/DE)
- local steering groups working on the aim of shifting touristic traffic within environmentally sensitive areas from private vehicles towards public transport
- DE – founded in 2001 by Deutsche Bahn and 3 environmental associations: BUND, NABU, VCD
- CH – founded in 2016 with the goal of promoting the discovery of Swiss parks by public transport
- aims to expand to the entire CH by 2020 (so far only in Grisons)
- 22 areas (NP, biosphere reserves and natural preserves) in DACH
Rail Tours Touristik (AT)
- “ÖBB Kombitickets” combine rail travels with touristic services (mainly day trips)
- targets local population and tourists at the same time
Luggage Transport Scuol Samnaun Val Münstair (CH)
- goal: to secure luggage transportation on «the last mile» – to the very last destination an back, so travellers do not worry about travelling by train with plenty of luggage
- understand tourism as a “tour” -> comprehensive engagement: 1. comfortable arrival 2. improve regional schedule 3. cross border public transportation network 4. enhance packages and offers 5. international offers and visions
- target group: mainly Swiss guests (50% to 90%), 1400 pieces per year, plus of 4.2 arrivals using public transportation
Guest Card Bohinj (SLO)
- rich cultural and natural heritage need protection from traffic, chaos at many parking lots
- 2002 first implementation of guest card, 2015 guest card becomes MOBILITY guest card, 2016 introduction of Winter MOBILITY guest card
- card is issued for 3, 5 or 10 days, can be used within Bohinj but also to reach Radovljica, Kranj, Ljubljana, Postojna, etc.
- from 2017 only available for guests of Turizem Bohinj partners (135 out of 230), funded through partners (79%)
- it includes: free public transport, free parking, free admissions, discounts, family offers…
- areas: 1. main area of Triglav NP does not allow any entry of vehicles with internal combustion engines -> free of private cars, 2. soft mobility is stimulated within the entire area of Bohinj -> traffic is calmed, intelligent transport systems are implemented, 3. Transit traffic is eliminated from surrounding cities and areas
Gästekarte Tourismusregion Berchtesgaden-Königssee (DE)
- free guest card for all overnight guests
- free public transport in the whole region with the guest card (train, bus, on-demand bus)
Liechtenstein Museum & Adventure Pass
- target group: day trippers, overnight guests, locals
- connects ca. 30 sights by public transport
- 1, 2 or 3 days pass
South Tyrol Mobilcard (IT)
- public transport and museums in one ticket
- ca. 1.4 million museum visitors (25% locals) -> huge potential for use of public transport
- >100% increase of entrances in museums
- from sale to integration for overnight guests (benefit for guest and partners – no long sales talk needed, high added value, instrument to monitor guest flows and identify potentials) -> needs a very good IT system
- “Veloland Schweiz” was founded 1993, since the integration of hiking division (1999) SchweizMobil
- Its goal is to develop and improve the national network for human-powered mobility (e.g. walking, hiking. biking, skating, kayaking, etc.) – all from a single source ->synergies can be used
- clients are various federal offices, the cantons, the Principality of Liechtenstein as well as numerous organizations from transport, sport and tourism
- physical network addresses tourists and locals mutually, most users of the platform are Swiss (number of users shows continuous growth)
- role model for other countries, e.g.’ KoreaMobility’
“Tirol on Track” mobility coaching (AT)
- objectives: increase rail travellers by 10% by 2020, expand last mile solutions, promote on site mobility and extend mobility systems with guest cards, internal and external marketing and information (therefore create a strong network for consulting and cooperation)
- mobility coaching project for tourist boards and hotels – educate mobility coaches within destinations (work with accommodation advisory service)
Interviews during the tourism mobility day conference
Marianna Elmi, Deputy Secretary of Alpine Convention (Watch the video here)
Philosophy/ concept: the mobility in the Alps should be sustainable in ecological, economic and socio-economic matters
- more than 80% of the tourists travelling to, in or through the Alps use their own private car
- transnational co-operations are very important: cross-border tariffs, information on timetables, policies…
- planning mobility services in a way tourists and inhabitants can use it, means of transport and timetables need to be attractive for both groups – problem is that target groups are often very different > can be a risk or a chance
Klemen Langus, Director of the touristic centre in Bohinj (SLO) (Watch the video here)
- Bohinj tries to persuade people of buying the card with free public transport and plenty of reduced entrances fees, benefits
- need to calm the traffic (day visitors and overnight guests), especially to the lake
- future objective is to extend the card to a bigger geographical area, e.g. to Bled and other villages in the Julian Alps – the first challenge is to encourage development of public transport in different valleys
Franz Rasp, Mayor of Berchtesgaden-Königssee (DE) (Watch the video here)
- guest card is a mobility tool, included from the first overnight on for all guests
- it can be used for all schedules public busses and park&ride parking lots, some discounts are included
- funded through visitors’ tax
- in the future mobility guarantee will not be a USP because guests will expect it from every destination
Uwe Penker, tourism board of Mallnitz (AT) (Watch the video here)
- big advantage: long distance train station in Mallnitz
- free shuttle bus from station to hotel or apartment for all guests, free use of e-bikes and hiking shuttle, program of NP Hohe Tauern
- number of guests arriving by train increases constantly
- project to use synergies between transport for locals and guests, because so far they are funded and operated separately
Lino Anziutti, Mayor of Forni di Sopra (IT) (Watch the video here)
- key factor for success in soft mobility concepts is a good connection to public transport – in the case of Forni di Sopra the next train station is ca. 50 kms away
- good connection to main roads is essential as well
- main problem in Forni di Sopra is to bring people to the destination, soft mobility on spot is available and easy
- big problem is that more and more inhabitants leave small, remote alpine villages –> no one to service the guest because the infrastructure (mobility, internet, …) is not sufficient
At the end of the day 4, in front of a very good beer, students ended the evening with a networking experience exchange with another study visit from GPS Tourism Interreg Project from Spain and France.
- The Pyrenees is a territory with abundant cultural and natural assets and a significant tourism potential. For many years, the development of infrastructures and services promoting sustainable mobility in tourism has been important, further giving an answer to local population needs. This development is in line with a growing trend towards a tourism profile that aspires for a sustainable and healthy life style. However, the consolidation of these products in that territory is still weak, given its limited dimension and international visibility, and because of a business sector without support mechanisms to adapt to those market conditions
- GPS Tourism tackles this cross-border challenge fostering economic and tourism revitalisation of the Pyrenees through public and private cooperation, relying on soft mobility as a tourism offer differentiation strategy and a sustainable tourism model proposition
- The project seeks to improve the territorial tourism connectivity, to increase its international visibility through a common label, to adjust public and private equipment and enterprises to a sustainable mobility strategy, getting inspiration from best European practices, to create new tourism products and to create cross-border management structures. The increase of visitors and the de-seasonalisation will have a clear impact in the local economy and in the creation of jobs in the micro-SMEs of the sector.
DAY5 – The last day of the Study Visit students presented in the Werfenweng municipality their proposals for the development of mobility offers in touristic areas with Bernd Kiechl (Director of the Tourism Association)
- The role of IT – Although some people prefer personal contact with the information office, they stated that an online platform (e.g. smartphone application) could be helpful for bookings and skipping the queues. Therefore, we believe that an app that would be complementary to the information office (which would only be designed to provide particular information) could add value to the overall experience whilst making SAMO more efficient (real time information about fleet availability, carbon savings -> help create sustainable behaviours, etc.)
- Awareness – Hosts must engage more in communicating SAMO (we noticed that many hotels do not state they are SAMO hosts -> Guests should already know about SAMO at the time they are in Werfenweng
- Create Sustainable behaviours – people should know what soft mobility is so that they can become more conscious of their actions. Measuring their carbon footprint and emissions saved during their stay in Werfenweng should be incorporated
The Study Visit ended with a last trip to Salzburg.
The public bus system in Salzburg provides an attractive stress-free way of getting around the city throughout the year. The trolley bus (Obus) system, which has been in place since 1940, allows riders to access almost every corner of Salzburg, all from the comfort of a quiet, modern, and environmentally responsible vehicle. The ways to and from Salzburg airport and the train station are covered. Riders can purchase single trip tickets, 24h-tickets or the ‘Salzburg-Card’ with free, unlimited use of public transport and free access to museums, among many other benefits.
Getting to Salzburg is comparably convenient with Salzburg being a train station with international and domestic train arrivals with high frequency.
- SAMO Project: http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/2017_Werfenweng-allgemein_englisch-end.pdf
- ‘Tourism Mobility Day Conference’ no. 1: http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/0-Pr%C3%A4sentation-Tourismus-Mobilit%C3%A4tstag-Sola-lettura.pdf‘
- ‘Tourism Mobility Day Conference’ no. 2: http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/1-Keynote-Werfenweng-191017-Sola-lettura.pdf
- CIPRA: http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/171108_TM-v-Alpah_STREET-projekt_low.pdf
- Panel 1: http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/2-Panel-1-Sola-lettura.pdf
- Panel 2: http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/3-Panel%202_OK.pdf
- Panel 3: http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/6-Panel%203.pdf
- SwitzerlandMobility: http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/4-TMT_Impulsreferat_SchweizMobil.pdf
- “Tirol on Track”: http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/5-TMT_Impulsreferat_Mobilitaetscoach.pdf
- Groups notes of Day 5: http://www.streetproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Presentation-Notes-Day-5-Werfenweng.pdf
- The WERFENWENG Study Visit Programme: http://www.streetproject.eu/?page_id=451
- #LearnedInWerfenweng: http://www.streetproject.eu/?page_id=750
The 3rd Study Visit was about “Reducing environmental impacts in a touristic town: from mobility policies to mobility solutions”. Students had the opportunity to get to know Bled (guided tour to castle, island, regional visitor centre Triglavska roža Bled). They were educated about the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan of Bled and introduced by Vision of development of Bled. The third day was dedicated to the excursion to Ljubljana, where they could see how the European Green Capital 2016 works. The fourth day students enjoyed in Bohinj and Pokljuka, in the heart of Slovenia’s biggest protected area, Triglav national park. On the fifth day, when students have plenty of information about Bled and its wider area, they presented their suggestions to improve tourism and traffic situation in Bled.
4.3.1 – The Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) in Bled
The Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan is a strategic plan designed to satisfy the mobility needs of people and businesses in cities and their surroundings for a better quality of life. It builds on existing planning practices and takes due consideration of integration, participation, and evaluation principles. In practice this means:
- accessibility and quality of life
- focus on people instead on traffic
- transparent decision-making that includes the public
In March 2017 also Sustainable urban mobility plan for Bled has been adopted. This document, which is a result of one-year process pursued Guidelines of the Ministry of Infrastructure, involves traffic analysis, public involvement, challenges, opportunities, vision, goals and action plan for five pillars:
- sustainable planning and awareness
- public transport
- motor vehicle traffic
In the action plan of SUMP for Bled one of the most important goal is to construct Southern and Northern bypass road in order to minimise the traffic in the centre of Bled and placing new parking places among bypass roads. Many actions are already ongoing.
In September 2017 the bike-sharing system “Bled. Green Ways” was introduced to the citizens of Bled. At the moment the system has 4 stations (two in Bled and two in the nearby villages) with 40 lockers and 24 bicycles (8 of them are electric). The system is currently free for all citizens of Bled and people who owns “Bled card”. This is a card which is used for parking in the municipality and using public toilets. Also tourists can cycle by those bicycled. They need to register at the visitor centre Triglavska roža Bled.
The Municipality of Bled is also in the process of purchasing 10 charges for electric vehicles.
Besides, the Lake Promenade has been closed to traffic. Nearly 50 parking slots has been cancelled. The place is in the process of projecting. Once one of the biggest parking places is now meant for people and places, events and culture, …
4.3.2 – The Ljubljana Traffic System
Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia and has more than 280 000 inhabitants. It is a regional city, its conurbation counts around 650 000 inhabitants (Slovenia has 2 million people) and produces 36% of GNP. The city is located in the middle of national and the state territory, on the gateway which has been the most convenient natural passage between Adriatic and CEU. The city region benefits location on the intersection of two main PAN-European transportation corridors: London – Munich-Istanbul, Kiev- Vienna – Barcelona.
Every day 150 000 car commuters drives to Ljubljana. Personal car usage increased by 60% in the last 20 years.
The Ljubljana Urban region is overburdened with traffic – The entire Ljubljana Urban region is easily accessible by individual cars; however, this is not the case when talking about public transport. Moreover, even commuting by car is getting to be more and more difficult due to increase in transit freight transport. Besides, approximately 150 000 commuters go to Ljubljana every day worsening the overall environmental condition of the city. The improvement of the public transport system is therefore the most important task of the future urban development. A more cooperative collaboration of municipalities and the state is essential to tackle transportation problems.
The use of public means of transport is decreasing – The use of public means of transport has been decreasing since 1986. At that time the inhabitants of the Ljubljana Urban Region regularly made use of public transportation by making 350 000 trips daily. Then the number of these trips quickly decreased. A fast increase in the number of vehicles is on the increase, the road network capacity remains the same. Therefore, the Ljubljana Urban Region is strongly behind in one very important indicator of regional development: the quality of public passenger transport services.
The sustainable mobility approaches are as follows:
- The city transport policy ought to promote walking and cycling in combination with different types of public transport
- It is high time for transport engineers to start regulating the development of the city by giving priority to pedestrians and cyclists over cars
- There is a direct link between the quality of public life in the city and areas closed to moving and stationary motor vehicle traffic
- Walking is the only truly natural mode of movement in the city, furthermore it promotes urban living in public spaces
- Road network expansions further increase and attract inbound motor vehicle traffic in the city
- An efficient and comfortable public transport should replace rather than merely complement car journeys
- Only if freight trans-shipment and delivery are differently organised, the number and duration of delivery and cargo vehicle journeys within the city could be reduced
The Municipality of Ljubljana has adopted municipal guidelines for traffic planning. They are removing cars from riverbanks and giving space to trees and people. Many central streets have been closed to traffic. Squares and streets (Prešernov trg, Kongresni trg, Slovenska ulica, …) are dedicated to pedestrians and cyclists. In those areas only, free public transport on demand is driving (for old people, people with luggage, …). Also shared space is established in many places.
Ljubljana is improving cycling infrastructure, creating new thematic cycling paths and making small re-arrangements in terms of floor indications. To make cycling more popular, cyclists counters have been set up on the main cycling routes. Also public transport is evolving – city and intercity lines are extending, on demand minibuses round-trip service are available for people, the “City Card” was introduced as a modern electronic payment system that allows 90 minutes’ free travel from the time of payment for the first journey, 50 buses on methan were bought in 2016, separate yellow lines for buses reducing delays during peak commute hours on arterials, 3 parking payment zones restrictions were established (the closer you get to the city canter, the more expensive it gets), park and ride…
Squares and river banks re-arrangements = a joint venture project of the city of Ljubljana and the city’s public companies
- Communal infrastructure investments and pedestrianisation of public spaces activate the economic and social regeneration of the historic town centre
- Renewal of historic pavements and street furniture reinforces the spirit of place
- Renewal of avenues and parks meet new needs of the people
- Limited or eliminated motor traffic makes public spaces more attractive, comfortable and safer
- New arrangement of reconquered public domain extends the continuous pedestrian area
- New public green spaces improve the climate and environmental conditions within the old city
- New arranged public spaces attract new visitors and new residents into city centre
- New arranged public spaces extend the use and stimulate the outdoor city life on the streets and squares
- New footbridges enlarge the network of footpaths and cycle lanes
- Renovation of river banks extends the public space and improve access to the water element
- Flexible public transport on demand within car-free pedestrian areas provides good access to all people
By all those measures slowly improves air quality and positive trends in modal split are already seen.
4.3.3 – Sustainable Mobility in the Alps
In Slovenia and other alpine countries, we have some autonomous non-governmental, non-profit organisations, whose goal is protection and sustainable development of the Alps since 1952. This organization is called CIPRA. Their goals are written in Alpine Convention. Slovene CIPRA is taking care from macro to micro level – from mobility planning in protected areas, mobility planning at mass (sport) events to school neighbourhood as a pillar for sustainable (urban and rural) mobility.
Mobility planning in protected areas – Protected areas have exclusive natural, cultural, landscape heritage and often have symbolic value. Problems which are facing Alpine valleys and protected areas are overcrowding tourism, depopulation, quality of life, air quality, noise, etc. Related to pollution in ecology we are dealing with a term “carrying capacity” of a given area, which means the maximum number of species (humans, plants, animals) in an area that can be smoothly evolve (grow) and the supply of available natural resources, not to cause pollution of the environment, to the extent that it reduces the carrier the ability of the environment in the future (Hardin, 1977). Carrying capacities in protected (mountain) areas are normally lower than in other less fragile ecosystems. To minimise the impacts on nature it is very important to plan.
Traffic is generated by local inhabitants, visitors, managers and suppliers. Their mobility is managed by infrastructure, mobility means, mobility needs, object and events which generate traffic demands.
How do we retain visitors in the areas while managing traffic pressures?
- Define carrying capacities of the area – where are the limits (safety, number of parking spaces) … and possibilities for sustainable mobility – public transport, cycle infrastructure, walkability
- Suitable distribution of activities, services, objects in protected areas (role of spatial planning)
- Legislation should regulate traffic in protected areas
- Road status – ownership, management, regulatory powers, duties
- Define areas where you have specific goals in traffic management (zoning)
- Seasonal traffic limitation – for example parking prohibition in July and August
- Alternatives – public transport, cycling, walking
- Informing, rising awareness, promoting sustainable mobility
- Thinking and reacting in advance
- To make compromises with all stakeholders
All the measures should be harmonized with local inhabitants, otherwise possibilities for success are reduced. In highly protected areas measures are stricter, with a goal of traffic pressure limitation.
Mobility planning and mass sport events – From the logistic and organisational point of view mass events are extraordinary situations. Logistic challenges are connected with a high number of visitors in a short period of time, with the use of infrastructure which was not build for such a demand. Some negative impacts can be avoided by well-organised public transport service, changing of traffic regimes, increased number of parking spaces, awareness, promotion, informing, … Successful business model and sustainable mobility are key factors for good organization mass events.
Sustainable events are events based on:
- preventing climate changes
- protecting nature and conservation biodiversity
- saving energy and water
- using of renewable source of energy
- respecting animals and their habitat
- welfare of the local community
- health and safety
- respecting of workers’ rights and encouraging of education
- protecting of natural and cultural heritage
- development of sustainable production and consumption
An example of mass event in Slovenian Alps are World Cup ski jumps in Planica, valley located near Kranjska Gora on the North-West of Slovenia. The Event has a 60-year old history, so organisers have plenty of experience. In only four days between 40 and 110 thousand people visit Planica. In the last 6 years sustainable organisation has been their goal. The organisers cooperate with non-governmental organization Umanotera. They tried to minimise the effects of mass events through the project “Čista zmaga” (in English: “Clean victory”).
In the framework of the project a guide for the organisation of sustainable sports events was prepared, some criteria for sustainable sporting events as a tool has been evolved, proposals of possible measures were presented, guidelines for the use of the organisers were written, overview of good practices were introduced, some analysis were done, … Organisers of ski jumps in Planica promote going to the venue by train (cooperation with Slovenian railways), tourist buses, local buses. They also promote car sharing and walks from accommodation facilities in nearby villages. For visitors public transport free or discounted tickets are available. Also advertising via social media has a great impact on minimising consequences of organising such a massive event.
Sustainable mobility in the school – Nevertheless, the most important factor to promote soft mobility is to start with children. Making their regular everyday trips by foot or by bicycle is a nice example also for parents and others.
In the last decades we are dealing with the “sitting generation”. Pupils are coming to school by car or by bus, fewer people are coming by foot or by bike. More and more children are getting fat. In the past the way to school was a place to walk, learn, play, hanging around with schoolmates, neighbours, …
In Slovenia some organisations that are working in the field of sustainability and soft mobility are trying to make popular cycling and walking to school by several actions, such as Pešbus (walking bus, pedibus) and Bicivlak (Bicycle-train). This means that schools are encouraged to promote soft ways of arriving to school and local communities are involved too.
Some meeting points are established in which pupils and some escorts from local community are gather together. From every destination there is a timetable, when the pešbus or bicivlak will start to the school. Pupils are accompanied with elderly volunteers to get to school.
4.3.4 – Students’ Feedbacks after the Bled Study Visit
During the Bled Study Visit students were given a special assignment. They were provoked to observe Bled and neighbourhood and to propose some changes to make Bled nicer to the tourists and locals. Students were divided into three groups, which discussed about three different topics. Their results are shown on the posters.
Some of the activities that could be held in Bled and were also presented to the local authority are:
- to establish apps for timetables of public transport,
- to add some information how to reach Bled from certain destination in sustainable way on the Municipality website on a certain day (finding the most optimal way of using public transport)
- putting signs for routes in Bled (beside direction there should be also walking distance time information (in minutes))
- branding of Bled under well known “Alpine Pearls”,
- to establish green vehicle park with e-vehicles like in Werfenweng,
- promotion of “Zero waste” destination among tourists,
- to set up water pipes along most popular walking paths (since Bled has drinkable water and to avoid pollution with plastic bottles),
- to promote less known spaces in the neighbourhood to spread tourists,
- creating of new tourist packages,
- timetables on the bus and railway stations should be translated at least in English,
- to educate drivers also to speak at least English,
- to become nicer to the tourists in a way that also on buses people would know in which station they are (for example: “Next station Bled Union”).
- The BLED Study Visit Programme: http://www.streetproject.eu/?page_id=453
- #LearnedInBled: http://www.streetproject.eu/?page_id=752
- SUMPs videos
- Links to presentations:
- Info Sources for Sustainable Mobility in the Alps:
- Trajnostna mobilnost v praksi, 2016:
- Trajnostna mobilnost v šoli, 2017. URL: aktivnovsolo.si
- Bohinj za trajnostni turizem/promet. Turizem Bohinj:
- CIPRA Slovenija, Mlekuž Consulting, 2009. Umirjanje prometa v Julijskih Alpah.
- Guzelj, T., Zagonec, K., 2010: Študija možnosti zapor v Triglavskem narodnem parku. Ljubljana.
- Ogrin, M., 2011: Je trajnosten razvoj zavarovanih območij mogoč brez trajnostne mobilnosti?. Razvoj zavarovanih območij v Sloveniji. Ljubljana.
- Ogrin, M., 2016. Promet v zavarovanih območjih. Predavanje.
Planica Ski cup, 2017. URL: http://www.planica.si/en
The 4th and last Study Visit, dedicated to “Turin and Piedmont on the move, between tradition and innovation”, was held in Turin (Italy) where the students compared multidisciplinary topics related to sustainable mobility and tourism, condensing the experiences already carried out in previous study visits. Some crucial questions were asked such as:
- What are the most recent transport policies promoted to support Turin as a touristic and sustainable city?
- How to strengthen the territorial competitiveness through the major infrastructures and the networking of the most marginal territories?
- What are the tools that an expert in sustainable mobility and tourism should know to work on urban and territorial mobility?
- What are the main bottlenecks to setting up an efficient start-up dedicated to sustainable tourism?
DAY 1 – The week started in the morning with a visit to “Turismo Torino e Provincia” the Agency in charge of promoting Turin and its province as a destination for leisure tourism, sports, nature, culture, individual and group travels (Fig. 4.44).
Daniela Broglio briefly presented some data about the state of art of tourism in Piedmont: actually, the tourism sector is equivalent to about 50,000 jobs and 7% of Piedmont GDP. The activities promoted by the agency are:
- hospitality service and tourists welcome;
- promoting destinations;
- submitting bids to host congresses;
- monitoring performance of tourism;
- supporting municipalities in international projects.
After the speech about the agency, our students Matteo Circio and Maria Paola Ritrovato presented two keynotes.
Matteo gave a short presentation about the “Walking in the Clouds”, an interesting project whose aim is to regulate the private car traffic to reach the heights of Nivolet Hill (Gran Paradiso National Park) during summertime and encourage walking, cycling or using a shuttle bus service.
Maria Paola presented a short overview about two services in Piedmont: SFM (Servizio Ferroviario Metropolitano/Metropolitan Rail Service), the local transport network and BIP (Biglietto Integrato Piemonte/Piedmont Integrated Ticket), a contactless smart card able to host several tickets of the local public transport services.
Leo Rieser (Slow Food deputy for Piedmont and Aosta Valley) presented the experience of “Terra Madre – Salone del Gusto #foodforchange”, a project conceived by the Slow Food organisation as a result of its growth and development and its belief that “eating is an agricultural act and producing is a gastronomic act” in a sustainable way.
Finally, Alberto Sacco (Councillor for Tourism and Commerce – City of Turin) gave the vision and strategies of the City of Turin for a sustainable tourism development.
In the afternoon participants found out how a major infrastructure can be intermodal, sustainable and connected with local projects, by visiting TELT (Tunnel Euralpin Lyon-Turin) with Luigi Pinchiaroglio (Fig. 4.45) and Giulia Avataneo, the public promoters of the new high-capacity railway link between Lyon (France) and Turin (NW-Italy). With its 57.5-km length the Mont Cenis base tunnel is the main project of the whole Mediterranean Corridor. It is highly strategic because it is corridor that will connect South-West Europe with Central and Eastern European Countries.
Day 2 – The second day started with an e-bike trip in Novello, a nice little town of the Langhe, near Turin, located between Bra (the home of Slow Food), Cherasco (the home of snails and amazing chocolate) and the Maritime Alps. During the trip, Massimo Infunti (mobility manager and expert in sustainable transport) presented through a role-game play BikeSquare, an innovative start-up company with a social vocation for e-bike renting and sustainable tourism development in the Langhe (Fig. 4.46 and 4.47).
The main questions of the day dealt with how to replace car ownership with e-bikes for short touristic trips and what main skills are needed and what bottlenecks prevent from setting up an efficient start-up dedicated to sustainable tourism.
Day 3 – The third day started with a visit to the wonderful village of Chamois (only 96 inhabitants!) at the foot of Mount Cervino (Fig. 4.48). When one plans a trip, they have two options to reach to this Alpine Pearl: by cable car or on foot. Chamois is the only totally car-free municipality in Italy. In the afternoon, a beautiful excursion took place to reach La Magdeleine, another wonderful Alpine Pearl.
Day 4 – A special tour with Ing. Alberto Forchino at GTT SIS, the Turin Public Transport Control Room (Fig. 4.49). The GTT SIS (Sistema Informativo di Servizio Gruppo Torinese Trasporti) operational centre is the “brain” that coordinates the entire surface transport network. All the bus and tram services managed by GTT are assigned to control room operators whose purpose is to ensure the regularity of the service and manage all potential emergencies.
In the afternoon there was a visit to 5T, the Mobility Management Centre of the City of Turin 5T is a company focused on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) solutions, aiming to improve individual and collective mobility and to provide innovative services for mobility. Francesca Marinetto showed 5T main activities (Fig. 4.50): traffic monitoring, traffic lights control, data analytics, enforcement systems, traffic and park VMS display panels and the “Muoversi a Torino” and “Muoversi in Piemonte” projects, two websites about info-mobility in Turin and Piedmont with information bulletins via radio and specific journey planner. Finally, with Francesca Sabatelli and Marco Bono, students experienced real-time traffic management in the city.
Day 5 – The last day was spent at ENGIM’s premises. It was the time to kick off the “World Café” (Fig. 4.51), an interactive open space where students could debrief about the Study Visits and create their own ideal project about sustainable tourism and mobility asking questions such as: “Which are the strong elements of today’s offer and demand for sustainable mobility and tourism? Which are the weaknesses?”.
Finally, during the World Café some experts were invited, in turn, to tell their experiences as administrators and representatives of institutions and associations on the theme of sustainable mobility and tourism:
- Giannicola Marengo (Transport Sector Manager of Turin City Metropolitan Area) presented the current situation and latest policies for traffic and transport in Turin.
- Federico Vozza (vice president of NGO “Legambiente Piemonte Valle d’Aosta”) showed the “Mal’Aria. Pollution in Italian Cities” research: “Change your engine but first change your habits!” was the message (Fig. 4.52).
- Andrea Scagni (professor of Statistics, University of Turin) presented the results of a survey about the “home to school” and “home to work” trips carried out by its Green Office’s sustainable mobility working group (Fig. 4.53).
- Giuseppe Estivo (Department for Transport, Turin Municipality) presented the city’s policies about sustainable mobility planning in Turin (Fig. 4.54).
- Massimo Tocci, president of the FIAB Turin (Italian Association of Bicycle Friends) and of the “Bici e Dintorni” Association, showed some solutions for improving cycling mobility in the future city (Fig. 4.55).
Links and references
- The TURIN Study Visit programme: http://www.streetproject.eu/?page_id=455
- #LearnedInTurin: http://www.streetproject.eu/?page_id=754
- TurismoTorino – https://www.turismotorino.org/en
- Nivolet Hill (Italian only) – http://www.turismoceresolereale.it/it/schedadettaglio?id=38155
- Gran Paradiso National Park – http://www.pngp.it/en
- Slow Food Piemonte (Italian only) – http://slowfoodpiemonte.com/
- BIP-Biglietto Integrato Piemonte (Italian only) – https://bip.piemonte.it/
- TELT – http://www.telt-sas.com/en/home-en/
- The Langhe – http://www.italia.it/en/travel-ideas/unesco-world-heritage-sites/langhe-roero-and-monferrato.html
- Bikesquare – https://ebike.bikesquare.eu/en/langhe/towards-barolo-ebike
- Town of Chamois – http://www.lovevda.it/en/database/3/tourist-resorts/aosta-valley/chamois/375
- Town of La Magdeleine – http://www.lovevda.it/en/database/3/tourist-resorts/aosta-valley/la-magdeleine/398
- GTT – http://www.gtt.to.it/cms/en/
- 5T – http://www.5t.torino.it/en/
- Legambiente Piemonte Valle d’Aosta (In Italian) – http://www.legambientepiemonte.it/
- FIAB (in Italian)- http://www.fiab-onlus.it/bici/
4.5 – The Study Visits follow-up
Each study visit was followed by an evaluation test to check students’ lessons learnt. There were prepared 10 questions for each test and it was considered as successfully completed if the score reached at least 70/100. Each test could be performed for maximum 2 times by every student and the highest score obtained was recorded.
Once successfully completed all tests concerning each study visit attended, students were awarded the final certificate of Expert in Sustainable Mobility and Tourism.
Some students were then selected to report the experience acquired during the entire project and, in particular, during the Study Visits at the Turin and London Multiplier Events (see paragraph A1.4).